Microbes were the initial form of life on Earth, and they were the only form of life until nearly a billion years ago, when multicellular organisms appeared. Microorganisms are single-celled organisms that are minuscule in size and invisible to the naked eye. Bacteria, Fungi, Archaea, and Protista are among them.

These living forms can be found practically anywhere on the planet where there is liquid water, including deep within the Earth’s core. They reproduce quickly and in large numbers. They are very adaptable and capable of surviving in unfamiliar conditions, including outer space, due to their high mutation rate and horizontal gene transfer capacity. They are an important part of the global ecosystem. Some germs, however, are pathogenic, posing a health risk to other organisms.


What are 8 ways in which microorganisms are useful?


The discovery of streptothricin in 1942 ushered in the history of antibiotics produced from Streptomyces, and two years later, scientists strengthened their quest for antibiotics within the species with the discovery of streptomycin. Currently, the genus Streptomyces provides 80 percent of antibiotics, with actinomycetes being the most important.

Keywords: Streptomyces; Antibiotics; Resistance; Infection


Lactobacillus acidophilus is a bacterium that lives in the intestines. It’s a bacterium that belongs to the Lactobacillus genus and plays a significant function in human health. Lactic acid is what it creates, as its name suggests. Lactase, an enzyme, is produced to accomplish this. Lactase is an enzyme that converts lactose, a sugar present in milk, to lactic acid. L. acidophilus or simply acidophilus are several names for Lactobacillus acidophilus. Lactobacilli, especially Lactobacillus acidophilus, are frequently used as probiotics. Probiotics are “live microorganisms that, when provided in suitable proportions, impart a health benefit on the host,” according to the World Health Organization.

Keywords: encapsulation; dairy whey;  gastrointestinal tract

For decades, private gardeners and professional farmers have utilized Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) to control mosquitoes, fungus gnats, and black fly. Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, a bio-rational control, is naturally present in the environment and regulates the larval stage of various Dipterans, such as mosquitoes, fungus gnats, and black fly. It is target specific, has efficacy comparable to S-methoprene, and is safe to employ among mammals, birds, fish, and amphibians — ecosystem keystone species.

Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis is similar to Btk in that it requires the target pest to consume it. After being swallowed, the bacterium generates crystalline toxins that damage the insect’s digestive system, halting further development and killing the pest larvae before they reach adulthood. This strategy allows you to lower disease vectors and egg populations while disrupting the pest’s breeding cycle at the same time.

Keywords: semicontinuous fermentation, combined process, bti, bioinsecticide


Spirulina, also known as Arthrospira, is a blue-green alga that rose to prominence after NASA utilised it as a food supplement for astronauts on space missions. It has the ability to control immunological activities and has anti-inflammatory qualities because it prevents mast cells from releasing histamine. Several studies have been conducted to determine the efficacy and potential clinical applications of Spirulina in the treatment of a variety of diseases, and a few randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews suggest that this alga may improve a variety of symptoms and may even have anticancer, antiviral, and antiallergic properties.


The yeasts used to make bread are mostly from the Saccharomyces and Candida genera. Commercially, vast volumes of baker’s yeast are manufactured. Because it has the enzymes to successfully handle maltose, it is a strain of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maltose-processing enzymes are absent in several organisms. Bacteria belonging to the genera Lactobacillus can use maltose to produce carbon dioxide and alcohol in the same way that yeast can. Diverse species and strains of yeasts and bacteria provide distinct bread flavors in sour dough bread. The flavors of sour dough breads are created by the alcohol produced by yeast and bacteria.


On an industrial scale, these microorganisms are currently playing a significant role in the cleanup of toxic waste. The breakdown of organic compounds in wastewater is primarily carried out by microorganisms and their enzymes. They have a crucial role in managing all ecological processes and act as principal engineers. They serve as a universal catalyst for environmental transformation. With technical advancements, bioremediation is a system that uses microorganisms to breakdown contaminants in wastewater and soil environments. Through cellular metabolisms, it converts biodegradable complicated harmful chemicals into safe and acceptable end products, such as CO2 and H2O. The colloid that is suspended and does not settle is collected and integrated into biological floc and biofilm. Important nutrients, valuable metals, and specific organic elements can all be extracted and recovered. It is a less expensive technology that produces no waste as a byproduct. Bioremediation, in addition to being a cost-effective and environmentally beneficial solution, is also the finest alternative to traditional treatment methods.

Algae Ethanol Plant

A team of chemical engineers have developed a new kind of jet mixer for creating biomass from algae that extracts the lipids from the watery plants with much less energy than the older extraction method. This key discovery now puts this form of energy closer to becoming a viable, cost-effective alternative fuel.

plastic degradation

Scientists all over the world are working on answers to the plastics problem, which is one of the most pressing issues of our time. Researchers have now uncovered a promising new enzyme. Bacteria have the ability to break down plastic. Researchers in the United States have discovered that combining two bacterial enzymes may break down PET far faster than before. The degradation is caused by the bacterium Ideonella sakaiensis, which feeds on PET as a food source.

Several years ago, the bacterium was found in Japan. The finding by Kyoto Institute of Technology biologist Kohei Oda enthralled the scientists at the time. The issue is that Ideonella sakaiensis does not feed quickly. A wafer-thin plastic film, which is not nearly as stable as a PET bottle, takes 60 weeks for bacteria to decompose in the laboratory.

The enzymes “PETase” and “MHETase” have now been combined by the researchers. The plastic decomposes in days, according to US scientists Gregg Beckham and John McGeehan. The findings were published in the journal “Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences” by US researchers. With one of the two enzymes, the researchers was able to degrade plastic in 2018. The students discovered that when they introduced the second enzyme, the procedure was six times faster.